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10个关键点,读懂西班牙新《商标法》

2019-02-18kg-吴双(翻译)PONS IP 官网下载文件:暂时没有下载文件
1月14日,西班牙开始实施商标法改革。此次修改将会同时影响新的商标申请人和已经拥有西班牙商标的申请人。因此,我们将西班牙新《商标法》的内容归纳为十个关键点,以了解西班牙新《商标法》的改革内容,以及今后商标所有人应注意的问题。

1、为何要修改《商标法》
《商标法》中引入的这些变化是为了适应西班牙立法适应(欧盟)第2015/2436号指令的需要,该指令包括商标保护领域的众多修改。其主要目标是优化整个欧盟的商标申请和注册程序,增加法律的确定性,促进各国商标制度与欧盟商标制度的共存与平衡。

2、取消“图形表达”要求
最重要的变化之一是取消了对图形表示的要求。到目前为止,图形表示一直是西班牙专利商标局(SPTO)接受某一商标的条件。这意味着任何能被清晰准确复制的显著标志都有资格得到保护。这一变化扩大了可以在西班牙注册的非传统商标的范围,如彩色商标、全息图、声音和运动商标、形状和位置商标等,这一系列保护独特的标志的可能性,使客户对他们的商标的认知更为强烈。

3. 异议阶段加入“使用证据”
最显著的变化之一是异议程序的变化,即注册商标反对相似或相同的显著标志注册的过程。自即日起,新申请人可以要求反对其注册的人证明该商标的真实、有效使用情况(注册满5年以上的)。异议人不能证明其使用或者援引正当理由的,驳回其异议。

4. 取消“著名商标(notorious trademark)”与“驰名商标(well-known trademark)”区别
新《商标法》消除了这两种非常特殊的商标之间的区别,将它们统一为“驰名商标(well-known trademark)”。这些商标应当为公众所熟知和分享,这使其所有者可以反对与自己的商标相同或类似的商标申请,即使他们指定了不同的产品或服务。

5. 严厉打击侵权措施
这项改革使商标所有者如发现某些商品上的标识与自己的商标完全相同或几乎完全相同,则所有者有可能阻止来自第三国的这些商品进入西班牙,无需提出请求,所有以上所述的产品都不可在西班牙销售,这大大地加强了对反侵权行为的保护。

6. 开放合法化系统
自1月14日起,任何个人或法人均可在西班牙申请商标或商号注册,无论其国籍、居住地或国际协议如何。

7. 加强对原产地标志和地理标志的保护
新《商标法》加强了对地理标志(PGI)和原产地标志(PDO)的保护;对于第三方提出的与PGI或PDO相同或类似的商标申请,SPTO可以通过提出相应的异议,以绝对或相对的理由予以拒绝。

8. 商标限制包括植物品种名称
这项改革对包括或复制植物品种名称的商标的注册提出了具体的禁止,从而澄清和加强了保护植物品种,不受随后商标注册的影响。

9. 西班牙专利商标局(SPTO)的新权力
该法赋予西班牙专利商标局对商标无效和撤销事宜的直接管辖权。这意味着西班牙专利商标局可宣布任何已注册的商标无效。迄今为止,主管法院几乎在所有案件中都遇到过这一问题,因此,这一改变将加速这种程序并大大减少其费用。这一点改革将于2023年1月生效。

10. 为商标所有者和新申请人提供的建议
简而言之,新制度增加了一些措施,可以帮助在西班牙注册和保护独特的标志,这是一个很好的机会来注册商标。另一方面,对于既有商标的所有人,我们建议对他们的商标或商标组合进行全面而详尽的审核,以便他们能够发现商标注册与其用途之间可能存在的任何分歧,以便整合其独特的标志。这种审核可以发现新《商标法》提供的新的保护机会,特别是关于非传统商标的保护机会。 


原文:
 
Ten keys to understanding the new Trademark Law

Carmen González 

The reform of the Trademark Law entered into force in Spain on January 14. The modifications that are incorporated shall affect both new trademark applicants and those who already own one. Therefore, from PONS IP, we have summarized the new Law in ten key points to understand what this reform consists of and what trademark owners should take into account from now on.

1.    Why the Law is Amended
The changes introduced in the Trademark Law respond to the need to adapt Spanish legislation to Directive (EU) 2015/2436 which includes numerous modifications in the field of trademark protection. Its main objective is to optimize trademark application and registration procedures throughout the European Union, to increase legal certainty and to promote the coexistence and balance between national trademark systems and those of the EU.
 
2.    The requirement for "graphical representation" disappears
One of the most significant changes is that the requirement for graphic representation has been removed, which until now had been a condition for any trademark to be accepted by the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (SPTO). This means that any distinctive sign that can be clearly and precisely reproduced shall be eligible for protection. This change broadens the spectrum of non-conventional trademarks that can be registered in Spain, such as color trademarks, holograms, sound and movement trademarks, shape and position trademarks; a whole range of possibilities to protect distinctive signs that appeal more strongly to the perceptions that clients have about their trademarks.   

3.    Introduction of "proof of use" in opposition proceedings
One of the most striking changes is the one affecting the opposition procedure, proceeding through which registered trademarks oppose the registration of similar or identical distinctive signs. From now on, the new applicants shall be able to require those who oppose their registration to prove a genuine and current use of the trademark in question (provided that it has been registered for at least 5 years). If the opponent cannot prove such use or invoke any justifiable cause, the opposition shall be rejected. 

4.   The distinction between "notorious trademark" and "well-known trademark" disappears (and all will be renamed from now on)
The New Law has eliminated the distinction between these two very special types of trademarks, unifying them under "well-known trademark". Such trademarks should be highly known and shared among the public, which allows their owners, among other things, to oppose applications for trademarks identical or similar to their own, even if they designate different products or services.

5.    Tougher measures against piracy
The reform gives trademark owners the possibility of preventing the introduction into Spain of goods from third-countries containing a sign identical or virtually identical to their own; all without requiring, as hitherto, that the products in question be marketed here, which means a significant strengthening of protection against acts of piracy.

6.   Open legitimization system
Since January 14, any individual or legal entity can apply for the registration of a trademark or trade name in Spain regardless of circumstances related to their nationality, residence or international agreements.

7. Greater protection for protected designations of origin and geographical indications
The protection of geographical indications (PGI) and designations of origin (PDO) is reinforced by this Law; applications for trademarks identical or similar to that of a PGI or PDO by a third-party may be refused by the SPTO both on absolute and relative grounds of refusal through the filing of the corresponding opposition.

8.    Restrictions for trademarks including plant variety denominations
The reform introduces a specific prohibition on the registration of trademarks consisting of or reproducing the denomination of a plant variety which clarifies and reinforces the conditions for its protection against attempts to register subsequent trademarks.

9.    New competencies for the SPTO
The Law confers direct jurisdiction on the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office in matters of trademark nullity and revocation. This means that this office may declare any trademark already registered null  This is a matter that, until now, had been fixed by the competent courts in almost all cases, and this change shall therefore speed up this type of procedure and significantly reduce its cost. However, we will have to wait until January 2023 for this point of the reform to enter into force. or expired.

10.    Recommendations for trademark owners and new applicants
The new system adds, in short, some measures that can aid with the registration and protection of distinctive signs in Spain, which is an excellent opportunity to take the step to register our trademarks. On the other hand, and for those who are already owners, we recommend a complete and exhaustive audit of their trademark or trademark portfolio, which shall allow them to detect any possible divergence between registrations and their uses in order to facilitate the consolidation of their distinctive signs. This audit makes it possible to detect the new protection opportunities offered by the new Law, especially in relation to non-conventional trademarks.
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